Ram aur Shyam (1967)

I wanted to watch a Dilip Kumar film to commemorate the life and career of this extraordinary actor. But which one? There are lots of iconic Dilip Kumar films that I have either seen long ago (Devdas, Footpath, Daag, Deedaar, Udan Khatola, Andaaz) and not reviewed on this blog, or which I’ve never seen (Tarana, Jugnu, Mela, Shaheed, Musaafir). I could watch a film I’d never seen before, but—knowing what a lot of Dilip Kumar’s early films are like—there was always a chance I’d run up against something depressing.

I finally decided to rewatch a film I’d seen years ago. A film that’s a good showcase of Dilip Kumar’s versatility, his ability to pull off comic roles as well as the tragic ones for which he was better known. Ram aur Shyam is an out-and-out entertainer, a film I’d watched and loved as a teenager, and which I knew for a fact would cheer me up.

Ram aur Shyam begins by introducing us to Kumar Ramchandra ‘Ram’ (Dilip Kumar). Scared, nervous to the point of being weepy, Ram is tormented by his brother-in-law Gajendra (Pran), who, along with his shrewish harridan of a mother (Zebunissa) lives with Ram and Gajendra’s wife, who is Ram’s sister Sulakshana (Nirupa Roy). Gajendra is nasty to Sulakshana and to their daughter Cuckoo (Baby Farida), but it is for Ram that he reserves his worst behaviour.

At the start of the story, Gajendra gets to know that at an upcoming function—to commemorate the 15th death anniversary of Ram’s father—the mill workers will be presenting some demands to Ram. Gajendra is certain that Ram, wimp that he is, will give in, which will mean less money for Gajendra. So he warns Ram: no coming for the function. No matter what happens, Ram must stay home.

Ram agrees, but later, his niece Cuckoo wheedles him into going along with her to the function. It’ll be fun, and they will sneak in at the back, nobody will notice them. Ram, never able to resist Cuckoo’s pleas, gives in. They enjoy the singing and dancing and are slipping away when they’re noticed, and immediately all the workers come eagerly forward to garland Ram…

And Gajendra flips his lid. Somehow he brings Ram home, and then sets about whipping him. (This, it later emerges, has been going on for years: when they were children and flying kites on the roof together, Gajendra thrashed Ram for laughing when Gajendra’s kite string got cut. Why, with such a history, Gajendra was accepted as a husband for Sulakshana is anybody’s guess).

Not only does Gajendra beat Ram black and blue, he also now sets about trying to get hold of Ram’s wealth once and for all. Papers are being drawn up, and Gajendra bullies Ram: sign, sign, sign. Ram is a bundle of nerves and so sick of it all that he decides to jump into the well. Sulakshana and Cuckoo, however, stop him and tell him how they won’t be able to live without him, and so on and so forth. Ram finally gives in.

Sulakshana is rattled by what has happened, and summons the family doctor. Why is Ram so timid, why can he not stand up to Gajendra? The doctor says a possible solution to this is to get Ram married. (Wow. If only all our psychological problems could be solved thus). Sulakshana is relieved, especially since she too has been wanting to get her little brother married.

And a prospective bride has already been found. Anjana ‘Anju’ (Waheeda Rehman) is the daughter of the wealthy Mr Gangadhar (Nazir Hussain). Gajendra goes to meet them, taking along a photo of Ram’s. Anju, however, makes it clear that she is not going to give her verdict until she’s met the man, and—to Gajendra’s annoyance—her father supports her. So, much against the wishes of Gajendra, who’d much rather have Ram married without any of this preliminary (and possibly risky) meeting, gives in.

Anju and her father come home for tea. Ram is very reluctant, and Sulakshana and Cuckoo have a tough time cajoling him to come downstairs and meet Anju. Anju, finally seeing her prospective bride groom come mincing timidly down the stairs, his sister and niece on either side of him (very reminiscent of the stereotypical potential bahu being presented)… has alarm bells start ringing in her mind immediately.

Within moments, Anju is even more puzzled and alarmed. Ram looks terrified, he can’t seem to think straight or talk straight, and when Anju offers to pour tea, he looks so worried that Cuckoo interjects to explain: Mamaji doesn’t drink tea. Perhaps Anju can pour him some milk.

Anju does so, but Ram’s hands are trembling horrifically and he ends up spilling the milk in Anju’s lap. This is the last straw; an upset Anju leaves, along with her father.

As soon as they’re gone, Gajendra again gets after Ram, bullying and harassing him and threatening to get those papers ready. Ram sees only one way out: he runs away.

Meanwhile, we are introduced to Shyam (also Dilip Kumar). Shyam lives in a village called Kaagal Gaon, and is both the bane and the joy of the life of his mother (Leela Misra). Shyam has substantial lands which he farms; he also has a running feud with childhood friend Shanta (Mumtaz), with whom he’s constantly exchanging barbs.

Shyam gets into another of his scrapes when, aided and abetted by his pal Murlidhar (Mukri), he finds work in a film that’s being shot nearby. Things go awry, Shyam beats up half the cast as well as the director, leading to his mother feeling that her son has shamed them both horribly. She is so upset that she locks up Shyam—hopefully he’ll acquire some sense that way—and goes off, heedless of Shyam’s shouts that he must be let out, he has to go to town to buy seed.

Shyam manages to break out and run away to town, where he goes into a restaurant and has a huge meal. That done, he slips away while the waiter has gone to get tea. In the meantime, the runaway Ram arrives in the same restaurant, sits down at the same table (with the dirty dishes scattered all across), and is mistaken for Shyam. He is given Shyam’s pretty impressive bill too, and nobody listens to him when he says he never ate any of this.

While Ram is getting hounded in the restaurant, outside in the street, another drama plays out. Anju has come to the same market to do shopping and is about to get into her car when she is accosted by some hoodlums who snatch her bag. Anju starts screaming, and who should come to her help but Shyam, kicking and punching and sending goons flying in all directions? Anju is flabbergasted. This is a very different man from the one who spilled milk on her the other day.

She is so impressed with Shyam (who, of course, she thinks is Ram) that she takes him home, and from there—having impressed Anju’s father as well—Shyam happily accepts when they invite him to come along with him to Kodaikanal for a jaunt. And there, Anju and Shyam (naturally enough, given the picturesque surroundings and the fact that Anju is now looking on her prospective fiancé with new eyes) fall in love.

Ram is taken aback, and starts to panic when the other villagers surround him. Then Shyam’s mother arrives, and starts weeping. He tries to deny she’s his mother, and says he’s not Shyam at all, but of course nobody’s listening. The ojha is summoned, and he does jhaad-phoonk, hitting Ram with leaves and throwing what looks like ashes on the poor man. Ram is so exhausted with all this nonsense, he takes the easy way out and agrees that yes, he is Shyam, and that yes, this is his mother.

All is well. Everybody is happy and relieved, and Ram and Shanta soon fall in love.

But what happens when a furious Gajendra goes to Anju’s home (where Anju & Co. have returned from Kodaikanal) to fetch ‘Ram’? Shyam, still masquerading as Ram, blithely goes along with the charade and comes home, to find Gajendra getting ready to whip the stuffing out of him. And a supposed sister and niece crying and wailing, telling him how much they’ve missed him, etc. An indomitable Shyam is not the sort to take things lying down…

What I liked about this film:

Dilip Kumar, who is superb as Ram and Shyam. Besides the fact that he is very believable as two very different men, he also manages to be funny as both of them. With Shyam, of course, it’s easier to bring in the humour, since Shyam’s insouciance and his irrepressible cheeriness make him such a delightful character, but even Ram, once he’s out of range of the nasty Gajendra, can be pretty funny, in the somewhat babe-in-the-woods style. His helplessness and his inability to stand up to more bossy people (even if those bossy people love him, as Shanta does) is hilarious.

Both Ram’s and Shyam’s characters, of course owe a lot to those who created them. Narasa Raju DV’s story and screenplay, Kaushal Bharati’s dialogues, and Tapi Chanakya’s direction, are part of the reason for the success of Ram and Shyam. The overall story and screenplay too are good: there is little by way of unnecessary digressions, no comic side plots (the two heroes can be pretty comic by themselves, actually), and a good pace that doesn’t drag or get boring.

And, the music. Ram aur Shyam had music composed by Naushad to lyrics by Shakeel Badayuni, and the magic works here, especially with Aayi hain bahaarein mite zulm-o-sitam, Aaj ki raat mere dil ki salaami le le and Baalam tere pyaar ki thandi aag mein jalte-jalte.

What I didn’t like:

The fact that Gajendra actually doesn’t get his complete comeuppance. Yes, he does get thrashed a bit, but that’s it. This is a man who attempted murder, a man who’s also a wife-beater, besides everything else. He at least deserves a jail term, a massive fine on top of that—or something, something more than what he ends up with, which is (in proportion to his many misdemeanours) a mere slap on the wrist. And Sulakshana, whom he’s been thrashing all this while, is happy to forgive him. Ugh.

But. That irritant aside, this is an enjoyable film. Fun, entertaining, and a great way to appreciate the genius that was Dilip Kumar.

And, yes. Some comparisons.

Five years after Ram aur Shyam, another Hindi film with the same basic story was made. Seeta aur Geeta (1972), starring Hema Malini in a double role, was directed by Ramesh Sippy and written by Salim-Javed (oddly, with no credits to the Ram aur Shyam team, though there are too many similarities between the two films for it to be a coincidence). Here too, one twin (in this case, the aptly named Seeta, all demure and docile) is the perpetually harassed, beaten, and ill-treated one, who lives with her crippled grandmother, her spineless Chacha, and her frightfully shrewish Chachi. Chachi’s spoiled daughter and Chachi’s lecherous brother are also part of the mix.

The other twin, Geeta, is a feisty street performer/acrobat who is constantly arguing with her fellow performer Raka (Dharmendra). A series of coincidences lead to Seeta and Geeta switching places (as in Ram aur Shyam), and the fun starts.

While Salim-Javed and Satish Bhatnagar (who were respectively responsible for the dialogues and the screenplay), may have borrowed the basic plot from Ram aur Shyam, they made this story their own. Just by making the protagonist(s) female, a lot changed anyway: the submissive Seeta was buried under a ton of housework, and the lecherous Ranjeet (Roopesh Kumar) was added to the evilness.

Plus, the characters’ characters, Seeta’s docility on the one hand and Geeta’s brash, fearless feistiness on the other, acquire a further dimension because they are females. Geeta, especially, as the banjaran street performer of no known lineage, has an uphill task trying to prove both her good intentions as well as her general ‘goodness’ (which includes a certain ‘purity’)—all of which is made much easier by the revelation of her actual lineage. Comparing these two films in depth might be an interesting study of gender differences in Hindi cinema.

Which is the better film? I can’t say. I like both equally. But yes, the joy of seeing Hema Malini’s Geeta giving Ranjeet what for: priceless. Shyam’s bashing of Gajendra isn’t quite as satisfying.  


39 thoughts on “Ram aur Shyam (1967)

  1. As good as Dilip Kumar was , and as good as the film is in itself, I still can’t help myself from admitting that the NT Rama Rao Telugu original was even better. Indeed, I rate Ramudu Bheemudu ( Telugu original of Ram Aur Shyam ) , Mayabazaar and Bahubali – The Begining, as 3 of the biggest achievements of Telugu film industry so far.


  2. Madhoooo… I was just getting my review of Ram aur Shyam ready for my next post when I – luckily! – saw your post on my blog roll! Will keep it for [much] later now. :)

    What a delightful film this is! Dilip really, really did such a good job. I agree with that NTR was a smidgen better. But since I would any day prefer to watch Dilip Kumar, Ram aur Shyam is very dear to my heart.

    With Waheeda, and Mumu! The scene with Mumu and the sickle in the hay fields was reprised by Madhuri Dixit in Beta.

    And thanks for that mini-review of Seeta aur Geeta as well. I still chuckle at the memory of Neeche aa jaa, beti…/Upar aa jaa, moti… as well Hema wielding a whip with a vim and a verve. She was so good in the film.


    • I agree with that NTR was a smidgen better.
      Just to clarify, I meant to write that the NTR film was a bit better. Not that NTR is a better actor… he wasn’t. (And that’s a categorical statement. :) )


      • Why am I not surprised that you too should have watched Ram aur Shyam around this time? (I probably would have watched Kohinoor too if I hadn’t already reviewed it). Both are such delightful films – and yes, totally agree about Mumu with the sickle. She’s such a joy to watch in this one. (By the way, I hadn’t realized Roopesh Kumar was her cousin, so that’s an interesting link between Ram aur Shyam and Seeta aur Geeta).

        I do hope I can get hold of a subbed copy of Ramudu Bheemudu sometime soon. I do so want to watch it!


  3. Ram aur Shyam is a great choice. It has Dilip in all his shades.
    The best scenes were the ones with Waheeda. The breezier ones with the naughty Dilip. Jangal bayabaan mein…. With Waheeda in perceptible awe of Dilip.
    Mumtaz matched him step for step. In the other half. A big step up from Pyar Kiye Jaa with Mahmood.
    Farida Dadi’s scenes with Dilip too were lovely.
    I agree. Pran got away lightly.
    One can go on and on.
    RIP Dilipsab.


    • Yes, truly Dilip Kumar in all the different shades of two different characters. A delightful film, and a good showcase of his acting ability. I agree that the best scenes are the ones with Waheeda – they got some great dialogues together.


  4. You mention Seeta aur Geeta as being inspired by Ram aur Shyam – but there was another movie – which perhaps was more inspired by Seeta aur Geeta- Chalbaaz in which Sridevi gave a wonderful performance. It had the benefit of a memorable supporting performance from Rajnikanth – of all people!


    • Seeta aur Geeta I especially mentioned because it came so soon after Ram aur Shyam. Also, I must admit I don’t like Sridevi, so I wasn’t going to watch Chaalbaaz just to compare. But thank you for mentioning that, since I am sure there might be other people to whom that might be useful.


  5. Ram aur Shyam was produced by the same producers ,Nagi Reddy and Chakrapani, who produced Enga veettu Pillai ( which was a remake of Ramudu Bheemudu) in Tamil in 1965 and this movie was also a very big hit. But Enga Veettu Pillai raised MGR to the level of Demi-God in the eyes of Tamils particularly with the song “Naan Aanaiyitaal Adhu Nadanthu Vittal” and the song in some way projected MGR as the protector, saviour and benefactor of the oppressed and the poor and raised his level as a politician. Of course , this was followed by many movies and songs in them which further entrenched MGR in the political firmament . In the elections held in 1966 MGR’s party ,the DMK, won and MGR himself won and became an MLA. Either in DIlip Kumar’s case( Ram aur Shyam) or the case of NTR( Ramudu Bheemudu) their respective movies did not enhance their already high stature & only increased box office collections. Of course , the most polished acting came from DIlip Kumar


  6. Looks do delightful. Must watch someday. I haven’t watched much of Dilip Kumar, I must confess. Kohinoor is already on my ‘to watch list’, now I’ll add Ram Aur Shyam.
    Thanks for the review.
    I’m a fan of Chalbaaz, as it was the first film among the three (Ram Shyam, Seeta geeta and Chalbaaz) that I watched. Sridevi is absolutely wonderful in it. She also received Filmfare for the best actress, I think.
    Later I watched Seeta Geeta and liked it too.
    I’m sure I’ll like this one too. Songs are good too.


    • Glad you enjoyed this review, Anupji. And yes, would definitely recommend this, as well as Kohinoor and Azaad – all are delightful showcases of Dilip Kumar’s ability to act beyond the tragic roles. Plus, all three have lovely music.


  7. Delightful !
    I had watched the blockbuster movie in the 60’s several times. In fact, in those times, if a movie was pretty ordinary, we used to say that it was worth watching ‘ just once ‘ ! A good film had to be seen more than once and a _Ram aur Shyam_ several times to justify our standing as a ‘ credible ‘ movie viewer !
    Dilip Kumar’s versatility was in full view in the film. He was and will remain an actor’s actor ! Naushad was on the wane during that period and this one is not among his best but still the songs that you have mentioned linger on after more than half a century.
    Really enjoyed a trip down the memory lane ! Thanks !


    • Interestingly, just a week back, I watched Sunghursh, which also had music by Naushad and lyrics by Shakeel Badayuni. That, even more than Ram aur Shyam, shows how Naushad was on the wane by this time. In contrast to Sunghursh, though, I think Ram aur Shyam generally has much better music – in Sunghursh there are songs which I’d have ascribed to Kalyanji-Anandji rather than Naushad.

      Glad you enjoyed the review, thank you so much!


  8. What a coincidence that you reviewed Ram Aur Shyam because this was the movie I chose to watch although I had watched it several years ago. I had the same dilemma that you had on which Dilip Kumar’s film to watch because most of them are so depressing. I had even commented on this on Anu’s site when she did an “in memorium” to Dilip saab.
    I liked Dilip Kumar as Shyam more than as Ram. I think he underplayed Ram’s role a bit. But Shyam was exquisitely done although it did call for a bit of hamming. Waheeda too did a bit of comedic acting that was pretty good. Waheeda has a traditional beauty and she does not carry off clothes like salwar-kameez well. And that god awful wig she wore. Once she slipped into a sari she looked as exquisite as ever. But Pran was too loud. He screamed in every scene he appeared in. He was far more polished in Madhumati.
    I had commented in Anu’s blog, I wonder how many of the next gen will even watch his movies being that they are so heavy in tragedy.


    • LOL for Waheeda’s god awful wig! Yes, that was terrible. And she just didn’t look good in that salwar-kurta (a piece of advice: if you haven’t already seen it, please avoid the Waheeda-Dharmendra starrer Baazi; she plays a Christian woman in it, and is in dresses and short wigs throughout; the look doesn’t suit her).

      Agree about Pran too. His character was just too loud and brash. A pity, because Pran – as in Madhumati (great example) – could be so good.


        • Yes, same one. It also had the Helen-Waheeda dance-off, Main haseena naazneena, where poor Waheeda got an even more horrendous-than-usual wig to wear. In addition to some pretty foul clothing, reminiscent of a little girl’s frilly frock. Dreadful.


  9. You pointed out the same complaints I have on this otherwise immensely satisfying movie – Sulakshana’s character, the tailor made ‘pativrata’ role for Nirupa Roy. Ugh.
    After the famous ‘signing the papers scene’ when Gajendra gets a sound trashing, she comes rushing down and slaps Shyam – for having stood up against this guy who has been beating them all their lives. I remember watching this the first time and thinking that she just spoiled the rush I was getting from a satisfying comeuppance, so rare in movies. Great movie otherwise, and your awesome review made me want to go back and watch again, thank you.


    • Oh, yes. That scene where she comes running up and slaps him… ugh. Made me cringe at the stupidity of the woman. At least that way Seeta aur Geeta is perhaps better in that Chachaji is more than happy to see Geeta giving the baddies a hard time.

      I’m so glad you enjoyed the review, thank you!


  10. Madhu,
    If you have to watch one Dilip Kumar film it has to be ‘Devdas’, and if another then ‘Ram Aur Shyam’. You get complete Dilip Kumar. For me, Ram Aur Shyam will remain superior to Seeta Aur Geeta and Chalbaaz. Now after reading your review, I know what makes ‘Seeta Aur Geeta’ work. There was no Nirupa Roy in it! One feels like wringing her neck in many films; in ‘Ram Aur Shyam’ she was placed in a difficult situation. She couldn’t have let her ‘brother’ make her a widhawa.

    There are many admirers of NTR original. I would love to see it if a good print with subtitles is available.

    Nazir Hussain’s humour, Waheeda Rahman’s embarrassment at her Dad’s undiplomatic comment, are superb.


    • I completely agree about Nirupa Roy’s character being the reason one would prefer Seeta aur Geeta to this. Her Sati Savitri pativrataness is utterly infuriating (to the point of being hard to believe). Odd, actually, in a film which otherwise had some fairly feisty female characters – Mumtaz’s Shanta, for instance, is no wimp, and even Anju stands up for herself and the respect due to her.


  11. Hmmm, I guess I’m the odd woman out who doesn’t love “Ram aur Shyam.” Not only did the comedy feel forced at times, but I just couldn’t get past how *ancient* Dilip Kumar looked compared to his leading ladies, especially the then 20-year old Mumtaz. And much as I admire Waheeda Rahman, I don’t think comedy is her forte. Her performance lacked the lightness that Meena Kuamri brought to her role in Kohinoor or Madhubala imparted to so many of her characters. The last straw in my dissatisfaction with the movie is Naushad’s music – it has the same trying-too-hard quality as the rest of the film. Count me among those who prefer Seeta aur Geeta to Ram aur Shyam and Chalbaaz to both.


    • LOL about Dilip Kumar looking ancient! He does, actually. In fact, while watching the film, I remember thinking that my husband is now older than Dilip Kumar was when he made this film, and though my husband’s hair is much more salt-and-pepper, his face is much younger-looking. :D

      Agree, too, about Meena Kumari being far more appropriate a choice for Anju’s role; but then, by this stage in her career, Meena Kumari had left those light-hearted roles way behind and was doing stuff like the godawful Chandan ka Palna


      • Agree with both of you about Waheeda, whom I otherwise adore. I too would have liked to see Meena (of the Kohinoor days) in that role. I can even imagine Hema Malini, actually, in that role. Even if her acting is not a patch on Waheeda’s, Hema was so, so good with comedy.

        DK had begun to go to seed by this time, but honestly, I still found him delightful in this film. But I do share your love for both Seeta and Geeta and Chaalbaaz, Shalini.

        I just wish they hadn’t made comic caricatures of Anupam Kher/Rohini Hattangadi/Shekhar Kapoor. Sri as Geeta, along with Rajnikant, was more than enough to make us giggle.


        • “I can even imagine Hema Malini, actually, in that role.”

          So your solution to my complaint that Dilip Kumar was too old for Waheeda and Mumtaz in this movie is to pair him with the even younger Hema? Oy Vey! :-D More seriously, it’s a bit disheartening how entrenched (and internalized) these sexist double standards for age are, no?

          Regarding “Chaalbaaz” I have just one response – watchalong! Agree about the bizarre (almost grotesque?) characterizations of the villains in “Chaalbaaz” but the movie corrects what I consider to be the fatal flaw in “Seeta aur Geeta” – the Geeta-Sanjeev K relationship – so I overlook that bit of oddness.


          • So your solution to my complaint that Dilip Kumar was too old for Waheeda and Mumtaz in this movie is to pair him with the even younger Hema? Oy Vey! :-D

            No! Woman! One is independent of the other.
            1) I think Hema would have done a great job with Anju’s role.
            2) I found DK delightful, especially as Shyam, though once Ram got out from his sister”s moping, and met Mumu, he too was quite charming. (Well, who can blame him? Mumu can make any man change!)
            I didn’t mean that Hema should be paired with Dilip (and you knew what I meant, lady!)

            I’m always ready for a watchalong. You know that. :) And Sri with Rajnikant is a hoot! Say when! :)


      • Well, Meena K.’s performance in “Chandan Ka Palna” produces it’s own kind of comedy…even if it’s unintentional. :-D If you haven’t already, I do suggest checking out “Baharon Ki Manzil” from the melting-face phase of MK’s career. It has a “hatke” plot that I think you’ll find interesting.


        • I remember Anu reviewing Bahaaron ki Manzil; I bookmarked it back then, but haven’t yet got around to watching it. I will, someday!

          LOL about the ‘melting-face’ phrase. :-D I remember Greta, I think, using it to refer to Kalpana in one of her later films.


  12. Madhuji, I haven’t seen Ram aur Shyam though I have seen Seeta aur Geeta and Chaalbaaz.
    Apparently, Vyjayantimala was first offered the role played by Waheeda but could not continue shooting because she had other commitments.

    You have rightly pointed out that the early movies of Dilip Kumar were pretty depressing. I happened to watch an hour of Aan, Amar and Deedar recently on television . The one thing I found very irritating was the way Nimmi was there in all of them and it was difficult to make out which movie it was after a while as the roles assigned to her were almost the same. Even the outfits and the songs were quite similar. The music also was pretty much the same as it was the Naushad-Shakil duo at work.


    • I am so glad someone else found Nimmi irritating too! In all the films you’ve named (and in fact, in several other films of hers), I’ve always found Nimmi thoroughly annoying. She somehow always seems to have got saddled with these roles which only required her to either mope or to behave like a weak-minded toddler.


  13. Madam,

    Sorry, this is off topic.

    Yesterday, I just read through the four posts on Edwina Lyons. I read about her on Memsaab’s blog as well. It was today by the time I finished.

    Yesterday 922 July) is her birthday. In case you wish her, please do convey my best wishes as well.

    Also, many thanks for the posts on Edwina Lyons (ie hosting them on this blog, as well as the comments/ replies).



Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.